Under the High Patronage of His Majesty King Mohammed VI

International Annual Conference on the Wider Atlantic

Cooperation in a Mutating World: Opportunities of the Wider Atlantic

Description

14-16

December, 2022

Marrakesh, Morocco

About
Atlantic Dialogues

Since its inception in 2012, the Atlantic Dialogues (AD) conference has become a well-established annual meeting point taking place in Marrakesh, bringing together around 350 high-level senior officials, business leaders, academics, opinion shapers and civil society actors from the Atlantic space and beyond. Morocco has been host to these gatherings given its location and close relations to all countries bordering the Atlantic. The Atlantic Dialogues Conference has became the most impactful event for the Atlantic basin, where the 4 continents meet during 3 full days to build the future of their common space on equal terms, and where the Southern voices are heard.

AD2022 has so far...

118
Speakers
176
Participants
53
Nationalities
30
Emerging Leaders

Speakers

Youssef Amrani

Youssef Amrani

Ambassador of Morocco to South Africa & designated to the EU

Morocco

Marcus Freitas

Marcus Freitas

Senior Fellow, Policy Center for the New South

Brazil

Nicholas Vonortas

Nicholas Vonortas

Professor of Economics and International Affairs, George Washington University

USA

Saïd Mouline

CEO, Moroccan Agency for Energy Efficiency

Morocco

Bachir Ouedraogo

Senior Advisor Sahel and Power Africa, Tony Blair Institute

Burkina Faso

Thomas Gomart

Thomas Gomart

Director, French Institute of International Relations

France

Philippe Goldberg

Philippe Goldberg

Regional Director, Centre of Excellence for Peace and Security in Sub-Saharan Africa, Friedrich Ebert Foundation

Germany

Marc Uzan

Marc Uzan

Executive Director, Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee

France

Mohamed Benaïssa

Secretary General, Assilah Forum

Morocco

Vincenzo Amendola

Member, Italian Parliament

Italy

Zeinab Badawi

Zeinab Badawi

President, SOAS University of London

United Kingdom

Jamil Mahuad

Jamil Mahuad

Former President

Ecuador

Dominique Strauss-Kahn

Dominique Strauss-Kahn

Managing Partner, Parnasse International

France

Miguel Ángel Moratinos

High Representative for the Alliance of Civilizations, United Nations Alliance of Civilizations

Spain

Yonas Adeto

Yonas Adeto

Commissioner, Ethiopian National Dialogue Commission

Ethiopia

Licínia Simão

Licínia Simão

General Coordinator, Atlantic Centre

Portugal

Atlantic Currents

An Annual Report on Wider Atlantic Perspectives and Patterns

The yearly report Atlantic Currents is published on the first day of each Atlantic Dialogues’ edition. In this flagship publication, researchers and experts from the Policy Center for the New South’s network analyze the state of Africa and the world with respect to the conference’s annual theme.

AC2022
ATLANTIC CURRENTS 9th EDITION: Cooperation in a Mutating World: Opportunities of the Wider Atlantic

This ninth edition of “Atlantic Currents” appears in an international context marked predominantly by a ten month-war between Russia and Nato members that began February 2022. The war is affecting not only

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Plenary XI
The Future We Want

The final plenary is dedicated to the Atlantic Dialogues Emerging Leaders (ADEL), a tailor-made leadership program gathering young professionals from across the Atlantic before and during the conference. This year, the ADEL program connects 30 women and men, aged 25 to 35, who have been selected from a pool of over 1600 applicants. These young professionals have demonstrated leadership in their fields and aim to shape the regional and global agenda in politics, finance, business, civil society, academia and the media. 

This year’s program, held from December 11 to 13, consists of structured group conversations with decision and opinion makers on key Atlantic development and cooperation issues, informal meetings with innovative community leaders and think tank representatives, and innovative workshops and sessions on collective intelligence, leadership and public policy, to name a few. It also leads to the creation of an interconnected community of 350 Alumni, that the Policy Center is following and inviting in various activities. 

Every year, the final plenary of the Atlantic Dialogues conference is dedicated to the Emerging leaders. It provides a platform for the younger generation of Atlantic leaders to share their perspectives on the topic of their choice, but also serves a refreshing conference send-off. The group votes for four of their peers to represent them on stage, a customary way for the Policy Center to close the conference.

Related Contents
Impactful Emerging Leaders of the Wider Atlantic

The Atlantic Dialogues Emerging Leaders Alumni (ADEL) Portraits are a series of journalistic insights that delve into the stories and backgrounds of impactful young leaders of the ADEL community, now 350 alumni strong. These portraits are more than a biography as they capture the motives, success stories, career shifts, and vision behind each emerging leader’s pursuit of positive impact. From Morocco to South Africa, Germany to Canada, Brazil and the United States, these young leaders from very diverse walks of life came together in Marrakech at some point over the past 10 years to take part in the annual Atlantic Dialogues Emerging Leaders program, to connect with other young professionals and leaders from around the Atlantic basin, contribute to bridging the North-South divide very much present in the Atlantic space, and become strong actors of intergenerational dialogue which is a central value held by the Policy Center for the New South. This book compiles 30 inspiring portraits, written by freelance French journalist Sabine Cessou, specialized in African and European matters, and a Research Fellow of the Policy Center for the New South.

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Plenary X
In Search of a Consolidated Latin America: Former Latin American Presidents Discuss Opportunities for Change (In Spanish)

Latin America (LATAM) was severely affected by COVID-19 as it accounted for a high mortality rate, a decelerating economic performance and food insecurity has been on the rise. Soaring inflation has therefore taken place with no abating signs. However, opportunities for growth, investment and poverty reduction lurk for LATAM amidst the Eastern Europe conflict. LATAM states, especially large commodity exporters, are presented before a historical chance to take advantage of the current geopolitical turmoil. Raising commodity prices and diversifying its exports from primary to manufacturing products could eventually pay enormous dividends for LATAM. Nevertheless, addressing inflationary pressures cannot be fully realized without a strong interstate cooperation that would form a consolidated region, regardless of internal divisions and ideological differences.

 

- How is a potentially consolidated LATAM perceived, despite power asymmetries between its member states?

- Will existing trade agreements in LATAM, such as Mercosur, the Central American Common Market (CACM), and the Andean community, forge the path to a unified region with sufficient capabilities to fight the crisis?

- What are the odds of LATAM considerably replacing Russia’s role as a major raw material exporter in the status quo? What effects on the Wider Atlantic?

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Will Latin America Return to Mediocre Growth After Shocks?

The pandemic has hit Latin America hard, and its economic recovery has been slower than in other regions. In addition to the legacy of higher public indebtedness, the pandemic left scars on the labor market and the human capital formation of future workers.

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The Internal Geography of Services Value-Added in Exports: A Latin American Perspective

We estimate the contents of services value-added incorporated in goods exports in different countries in Latin America, exploring the local dimension of the results. We use inter-regional input-output analysis to trace and map domestic value-added embedded in those countries’ exports. We add to the discussion of global value chains the internal, withincountry geography of trade in value-added, since the set of locational preferences that help understanding the spatial patterns of natural resource-intensive activities differ dramatically from that for services. The decoupling of the patterns of value-added in non-services and services activities reveals a potential new form of “geography of discontents” in the region.

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No Women, No Growth – The Case for Increasing Women’s Leadership in Latin America

Latin America is up against a momentous year on multiple fronts. On one hand, game-changing national elections in six countries, including three of its largest – Brazil, Mexico and Colombia – are poised to reshape the political scenario in the region. In parallel, the economic agenda is front and center of countries’ efforts to overcome imbalances, implement reforms and accelerate growth. As a backdrop to all this, an important feminist movement is unfolding on the heels of a year marked by discussions on gender equality, with critical implications on both the political and economic spheres.

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AD Talk II
Morocco and the Atlantic (In French)

Morocco has two coastlines totalling a length of 3500 km, of which around 3000 give access to the Atlantic. This strategic geographical asset has the potential to turn the country into a crucial meeting point between the Americas and the rest of Africa. With distances shrinking due to the maritimization of the world, and the important opportunities in terms of economic cooperation, the Atlantic Ocean can also be considered as a space that bridges new narratives and perceptions of the developing world. In June 2022, Rabat hosted the 1st Ministerial Meeting of the African Atlantic States, an initiative aiming at laying the groundwork for a shared strategic vision and establishing a common African Atlantic identity. However, while stronger cooperation and better trade performance is on the agenda, addressing current security threats in the region remains an urgent priority. With recent discoveries of gas in the Southern Atlantic, new threats can quickly emerge with the rise of transnational crime and terrorist activities. As a result, the need for maritime security and cooperation among Atlantic states will become primordial with increased economic activity in the Atlantic.

 

- In what ways can Morocco exploit its geostrategic location to the fullest in its mission to promote maritime cooperation along the Atlantic coastline?

- How can these countries design a common framework to discuss and address security threats in the region and push for a Pan Atlantic partnership?

- How can Morocco capitalize on its transatlantic relations as a financial leverage to attract foreign aid and grow expertise that can be shared with the countries most exposed to the Atlantic’s emerging security challenges?

- How can the country move from security cooperation to a more consistent and comprehensive model able to revitalize transatlantic trade and enhance investor trust and interest in the region?

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AD Talk I
A Fragmented World: North-South Perspectives

France and Morocco share much of their history and geography. They are not only Mediterranean countries but also Atlantic countries. They have both taken part in the processes of institutionalization and consolidation of solidarities in their respective continents, while working to build partnerships between Africa and Europe.

 

Considering the fragmentation and reorganization of the world, however:

- How do they view the major challenges facing the international community and humanity?

- What differences in perception are implied by their different positions in the concert of nations?

- How can these differences be acknowledged without undermining the possibility of cooperation for the common good(s)?

- What are the specific and shared principles that drive their external action?

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Plenary IX
Fighting Inequalities: The Role of the Social State in the Wider Atlantic

The rise of inequality is becoming one of the biggest concerns for developed, developing and emerging economies. Nowadays, more than ever, it is becoming an extremely important issue facing many economies around the world, not only from an equity point of view but also from an economic and social perspectives.

The recent COVID-19 crisis has highlighted the weaknesses of the global economic system and has also put strong emphasis on the importance of the social state in fighting inequalities. Indeed, during this pandemic, we have seen that a large part of the population, mainly in the southern part of the Atlantic, has been left overnight without financial means to cover its basic daily needs. This situation has been aggravated by the low levels of access to social protection, and by the low qualification of workers in several economic sectors and in particular in the informal sector, which does not allow them to keep their job or to find a new one that can be carried out remotely from home.

 

- What is the role of social state in fighting inequality? what are the main policies that governments should prioritize, to help reduce within-country inequality and ensure that economic gains are well shared ?

- How can governments strengthen their capacity to raise the necessary tax revenues, in order to finance the social investment needed to reduce inequalities without discouraging economic activity?

- What is the cost of tax havens for developing countries and what role can international cooperation play in dealing with this issue?

- How can governance be made more effective to help fight within countries inequality?

Related Contents
Making Globalization Inclusive: Job Creation and Wage Inequality in Developing Economies

Some of the papers in this special issue were initially presented at a September 2016 conference on Global Labor Markets organized by the IMF, Policy Center for the New South and Brunel University, while others were commissioned through a call for papers. Funding for this initiative was provided in part through the IF-DFID program on Macroeconomic Research in Low Income Countries. Views expressed in this introduction and in the papers are those of the authors and should not be ascribed to the IMF or DFID.

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Inequality in Morocco: An International Perspective

Income inequality is high in Morocco. In 2013, the share of national income1  of the richest 10% in Morocco stood at nearly 32%, 12 times higher than the share of national income of the poorest 10% of the population. This paper argues that, drawing on international experience, there is much more that Morocco’s government can do to reduce inequality while at the same time enhancing growth and – possibly – doing so in a manner that is budget-neutral or even budget-positive. Top of the list are reform of Morocco’s dysfunctional educational system, and action to promote the participation of women in the labor force. Insufficient numbers of qualified workers are a key constraint on Morocco’s growth and more Moroccan women are qualified and free to work. Availability of health services needs to be more equitable across Morocco’s regions and social classes, enhancing not only the quality of life but also productivity. Morocco’s tax system can be made more progressive, inclusive and efficient, i.e. without unduly affecting incentives to work and invest. Increased competition in key sectors would both promote equality and stimulate growth. Actions to reduce corruption could have similar effects. Far better access to data on tax collection and household surveys would greatly improve understanding of inequality in Morocco and is essential for an effective government response.

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EUROMESCO Annual Conference: Towards more social justice and inclusiveness in the Mediterranean

The inclusion of young people and women is a major concern in several Mediterranean countries, particularly in the South and South-East. The labour markets of the countries on this shore share a number of features that exacerbate the difficulties of social and, above all, professional integration. In this regard, we cite the low demand for labour -which remains crucial in a context of advanced demographic transition- due in particular to the low employment growth, which has multiple origins, including the structure of the economies, their competitiveness and their weak economic and financial integration, at regional and global levels.

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(En) Plenary VI: The Digital Age and the Modern Social Contract

Plenary VI: The Digital Age and the Modern Social Contract. Moderator: Uduak Amimo, Consultant, Uduak Amimo Consulting Speakers: Jamira Burley, Head of Youth Engagement and Skills, Global Business Coalition for Education Sunjoy Joshi, Chairman, Observer Research Foundation Enrique Mendizabal, Founder and director, On Think Tanks Lex Paulson, Attorney, Professor, Sciences PO Paris

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Plenary VIII
Facing the Food Security Challenge Together in the Wider Atlantic

The first half of 2022 witnessed one of the biggest shocks in the global food market in decades. As countries recovered from the COVID-19 pandemic, supply chains struggled to keep up with the growing demand for food and put pressure on prices. In addition, the war in Ukraine intensified record-high prices for food, fertilizer, and energy. As a result, the food price index has reached a record high, further threatening the food security of vulnerable countries, some of which are in the Atlantic basin, already fragile. Thus, the latest estimates show that 45 countries worldwide, including 33 in Africa, 2 in Latin America, and 1 in Europe, will need external assistance for food. Other exogenous challenges, notably climate change, increasing resource scarcity, and decreasing productivity, are also significant concerns. In facing these compelling challenges, policymakers must find solutions to create stronger, safer, more resilient communities. Improving the technological content of agricultural inputs and technical practices is essential to building this resilience, particularly in rural areas where the population is predominantly poor and vulnerable. This session explores solutions for building resilience to overlapping crises through a comprehensive and coordinated effort to align incentives, accelerate innovation, and scale up investment.

 

- In the current context of the price crisis, climate change, and food insecurity, what urgent solutions and actions are needed in the short term to overcome this crisis in the Atlantic?

- How could policy and incentive measures help address the impact of the food crisis in the Atlantic basin?

- What forms of collaboration, such as regional trade, agricultural research, and extension, should governments put in place to transform agriculture and strengthen national/regional food security?

Related Contents
Towards a Pan-African Approach to Food Security

This brief argues for a pan-African food security initiative that would: 1). encourage free trade in food products between African countries; 2). promote multi-country regional investments in infrastructure to enhance agricultural productivity and resilience to climate change; 3). support public-private partnerships to establish fertilizer factories across the continent; 4). create an African council responsible for coordinating and encouraging agricultural research and development; and 5). support a facility that would ensure vulnerable African countries can finance food imports in times of crisis.

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Food for Trade or Food for National Food Security: A Dilemma for Drylands

Addressing the increasing demands for water, energy, and food requires a coherent methodology to ensure that  societies have access to them and that conflict over them is avoided. For example, agriculture and food production  require water and energy; energy production also requires water and, in some instances, agricultural products.  Water distribution and treatment can be very energy intensive. Therefore, the benefits of approaching the Water- Energy-Food (WEF) nexus in an integrated way are gaining popularity. The public sector, the private sector, civil  society, combined with the geopolitical and socio-economic-climatic environment are all interactors that form a  complex web in the management of these fundamental resources. The MENA region relies heavily on international  trade to ensure national food and nutrition securities and, with world crises and changing global landscapes, this  has  created  a  concern  among  nations  as  to  whether  it  is  sustainable  or  focusing  on  creating  greater  food  self- sufficiency is a better alternative. This policy brief illustrates the use of computer decision support systems (DSS)  to aid in the understanding of the WEF nexus with a particular focus on evaluating food production for trade or  for self-sufficiency.

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Food for Trade or Food for National Food Security: A Dilemma for Drylands

Addressing the increasing demands for water, energy, and food requires a coherent methodology to ensure that  societies have access to them and that conflict over them is avoided. For example, agriculture and food production  require water and energy; energy production also requires water and, in some instances, agricultural products.  Water distribution and treatment can be very energy intensive. Therefore, the benefits of approaching the Water- Energy-Food (WEF) nexus in an integrated way are gaining popularity. The public sector, the private sector, civil  society, combined with the geopolitical and socio-economic-climatic environment are all interactors that form a  complex web in the management of these fundamental resources. The MENA region relies heavily on international  trade to ensure national food and nutrition securities and, with world crises and changing global landscapes, this  has  created  a  concern  among  nations  as  to  whether  it  is  sustainable  or  focusing  on  creating  greater  food  self- sufficiency is a better alternative. This policy brief illustrates the use of computer decision support systems (DSS)  to aid in the understanding of the WEF nexus with a particular focus on evaluating food production for trade or  for self-sufficiency.

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Selective Review of Food Security Policy Worldwide: What can be learned from international experiences in order to shape food security policy in Africa?

We are living through unprecedented times. The COVID-19 pandemic threatens not only our health, but the very foundation of life itself: our food security. Now more than ever, we are forced to rethink our food security as we witness the widespread dislocations to our food system, forcing millions to beg for food for the first time. During normal times, our world produces enough nutritious food for all but millions still go hungry every day. Why does this happen and what can be done to end this scourge? Nearly 75 years after the end of the Second World War, since when many countries have pursued policies to achieve food security, it is befitting to take stock and ask ourselves what has been achieved, at what cost, and what have we learnt that can help us better thrive in a post COVID-19 pandemic world. Many countries, with different political systems, and at different levels of development, have equated food security with food self-sufficiency (FSS) and/or food sovereignty (FSY). The common element in these countries’ approaches is the belief that producing domestically all of the nation’s consumption of basic food makes a country food secure: the country retains control over its food supply and therefore is not vulnerable to the vagaries of international trade, in particular import price spikes, political economy disruptions, and natural and man-made (including public health) disasters elsewhere in the world. FSS has been equated with national security itself. In distinguishing means versus ends, FSS is a means of achieving the end or the desired state, which is food security. FSY is also concerned with retaining control, but in this case, it also includes control over a country’s preferred approach to agricultural and food policies. FSY asserts that the country does not want its food supply and its agro-food policy approach to be subjugated to foreign corporate interests. In both FSS and FSY, the use of trade protection in some form is central.

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Food insecurity: a major challenge to overcome

Ensuring food security for a growing population is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. The scarcity of natural resources, the negative impact of climate change on agricultural production, and the rapid urbanization are all among many other factors that threaten food security worldwide. Given that several million people in the world already suffer from undernourishment and malnutrition, it is necessary today to adopt adequate policies to meet food demand in each country. In light of these observations, Isabelle Tsakok, Senior Fellow at the Policy Center for the New South, explains in depth the concept of food security and outlines major factors that undermine food security.

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Is technology the answer to the African food crisis?

In a conversation with PCNS Columnist Helmut Sorge, Eniola Mafe who is a strategist, international development leader, Founder at Eniola Mafe Advisory, lead of 2030 Vision Initiative and Atlantic Dialogues Emerging Leaders alumna discusses the existing solutions for Africa's food crisis, the untapped potential of agriculture on the continent and how technology and its democratization could be the solution to Africa's agricultural hardships.

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Impact of the Ukraine crisis on Food Security

Traders have worried that the war involving Russia and Ukraine could stoke inflation, further disrupt supply chains and derail the global economic recovery. Scarcity of food has led to rising prices within the conflict zone and elsewhere in the world. Both local and global markets are stressed because food demand is high while supply has been restricted. Rising food prices mean rising food insecurity. In this podcast, Dr. Rabi Mohtar & Dr. Isabelle Tsakok, both Senior Fellows at the Policy Center, discuss the effects of the conflict on food security, and the possible ways to mitigate these effects in the medium and long term. 

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Plenary VII
The Security-Development Nexus in the Sahel: The Challenge of Implementation

The rise of geopolitical tensions in the world has added a new threat in the Sahel, an area already riddled with economic and security uncertainties. The withdrawal of European troops and the drastic reduction in the number of French troops has created a vacuum where the Sahelian states were already struggling to spread their administrative authority in their vast territories. The very concept of foreign intervention and its architecture in the case of the Sahel zone must be reformulated and reassessed in the light of recent events. Part of the answers require the empowerment of local armies and the establishment of regional peacekeeping mechanisms. These initiatives to expand counter-terrorism strategies still suffer from lack of funding and coordination. The efficiency of regional approaches and their coordination with other international entities and the question of the financing of these initiatives is at the heart of the new security deal in the Sahel. In that sense, an approach centered on economic development and the security-development nexus is insistently demanded by the States of the Sahel who reject a mere security and military approach.

 

- How can the current crisis be interpreted and how can regional initiatives like the G5 Sahel tackle the current security crisis?

- How can new approaches against violent extremism  be implemented to help states stabilize their territories?

- How can long-term political stability be restored in the Sahel and the link ensured between security and development approaches?

Related Contents
For Mali and the Sahel, New Tensions and an Old — and Worsening — Security Problem

Events in the Sahel, and Mali especially, are taking an uncertain and worrying turn. Mali witnessed two coups d’état in less than a year, while the West African Sahel went through its most violent year yet and there are no signs that the violence is slowing down. In the midst of this unprecedented instability, recent developments involving Mali’s transitional government and the international community, France in particular, provide no assurances that things are likely to improve anytime soon. Mali’s government is considering hiring the Wagner Group, a Russian private military company (PMC) better known for its human rights violations than anything else. If Bamako moves ahead with the plan, it could disrupt the country’s weak counterterrorism and stabilization efforts. The international community has pushed back, warning against such a move. While France, Mali’s key partner, has promised it will not abandon the country, it has already started vacating key bases in the north. Germany, an important contributor to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), has also warned against hiring the Russian PMC.

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SAHEL: Moving Beyond Military Containment Policy Report

Almost ten years after the beginning of the security crisis in the Sahel, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger face a graver predicament than ever before. In the throes of multiple insurgencies, they and their foreign patrons, including France, have shown the limits of military containment. While these three countries are the victims of terrorist aggression, their crises also have deep domestic roots, including long-standing patterns of state abuses of their populations, even in the more democratic ones; neglect of governance responsibilities and very weak capacity to provide public goods, including security and justice; exclusionary politics whereby some communities find themselves systematically marginalized while others behave as the “owners” of the state, which feeds deep grievances against the state that jihadists exploit; and, finally, complacent political elites who are largely shielded from political accountability. To escape their predicament, Sahelian states must reinvent themselves in ways that build on their historical legacies, including Islam, rather than trying to mimic ill-fitting Western models. Donors can help by moving away from antiterror kinetic operations toward civilian protection and projects that better embed the state in local social relations and strengthen local communities in the face of difficult natural conditions.

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The Maghreb’s Outlook Towards the Sahel: An analysis of Morocco, Algeria, and Mauritania standpoints

The Sahel has become more prominent in policymaking circles because of its strategic importance and the urgent nature of the dangers that have become rife in the region. Unfortunately, countries in the Maghreb have been relatively sidelined in recent years despite their potential sizable role in stabilizing the region and spurring economic development. Therefore, the focus of this brief is to analyze the Maghreb’s outlook towards the Sahel, namely from the perspective of Morocco, Algeria, and Mauritania.
Morocco has strong geopolitical interests in the region which are becoming an international gateway for business in Africa, increasing support for its stance on its southern provinces, counterbalancing its neighbor Algeria, and countering terrorism through multilateral security collaboration with West African countries and other partners. For Algeria, the Sahel will remain an important focus point. President Tebboune’s February 2020 speech at the African Union (AU) and Lamamra’s appointment as Foreign Minister indicated a strategic shift based on a refocusing on Africa. The Algerian establishment has diverging interests which include limiting Morocco’s regional sway, protecting its borders and perceived sphere of influence (Libya, Mali, Niger), and attempting to remain an influential actor in the region. Lastly, Mauritania is a key actor in terms of the Maghreb’s outlook towards the Sahel. The pervasive issues the region faces will need multilateral efforts, and Mauritania is well-positioned to be both involved in security frameworks and international development strategies. Indeed, in the words of its President Ould Ghazouani, “the situation of the region requires larger cooperation.”
Overall, Morocco, Algeria, and Mauritania all have enduring historical, political, and economic ties with the Sahel. As the region has become subject to strong foreign influences, Maghreb countries also have, as presented in this policy paper, their own respective agendas and strategies.

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Africafé : The situation in the Sahel and the ongoing conflicts

In this episode of Africafé, Rida Lyammouri will talk about the ongoing conflicts in the Sahel, evoking the instability in Mali and Burkina Faso and suggests ways forward for greater engagement from the international community in helping fragile states in the region.

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Security in the Sahel after the coup d’etat in Burkina Faso: Challenges and Implications

Violence is increasingly endangering the lives of populations throughout the Sahel. Amid this problematic situation, coup d’etats are multiplying. On January 23, a military coup d’etat was announced in Burkina Faso. What are the challenges that this new situation reinforces? How would the international community encounter these challenges and which actors are able to contribute to security in the region? Rida Lyammouri, senior fellow at the Policy Center, and specialist of the Sahel region, answers these questions in this podcast.

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Sahel development summit

A summit on the African vision of Sahel’s future with a focus on development around the 5 Sahelian Ministers of Economy and the report “Sahel: Moving Beyond Military Containment”

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Fighting for Africa: External Power competition in the Sahel

President Trump may not enact his threatened US drawdown of troops from the Sahel, but President Biden will still face pressure to end America’s “forever wars” and reduce the number of American lives and treasure lost to fighting terrorism in Africa. If the United States pulls back from the Sahel, terrorist groups active there may seek to export unrest to more-secure coastal countries like Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Benin, and Togo. Can Europe fill the void? And will Russia, China, or other actors try to move in and assert their own influence in the region? Chair: Khalid Chegraoui, Senior Fellow, Policy Center for the New South TBC Speakers: . Pierre Englebert, H. Russell Smith Professor of International Relations, Pomona College; Senior Fellow, Africa Center, Atlantic Council . Rida Lyammouri, Senior Fellow, Policy Center for the New South . Abdoul Salam Bello, Senior Project Officer, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification; Senior Fellow, Africa Center, Atlantic Council.

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Plenary VI
Facing Food Insecurity and Climate Change Challenges in the Wider Atlantic

An unprecedented threat to humanity, the climate crisis has been worsening for decades. Global warming is profoundly impacting the environment, the global economy, and the international peace and stability on which humanity depends. Food production, access to fresh water, and livable ambient temperatures are increasingly at risk. These crises create significant hardship and pose risks to all, but above all, to vulnerable developing countries. Today, many climate-related issues have become increasingly important areas for international cooperation, such as reducing methane emissions, building resilience to climate-related extreme weather events, prioritizing a green recovery from COVID-19, and the role of public financial institutions. However, while interests in addressing climate change may overlap, priorities often differ. In this sense, the issue of climate finance remains contentious but must be addressed to overcome lingering bottlenecks and accelerate adaptation and resilience to climate change.

 

- What is the current state of climate change cooperation in the Atlantic Basin?

- Will the “Loss and Damage” agreement, adopted during COP27, truly contribute to scaling up finance for climate action?

- How can countries overcome their differences to improve climate change cooperation?

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COP27: A Brief Account of Contemporary Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Policies, a View from the South

This year, the Conference of the Parties (COP27) will be held in in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. On the outset of this auspicious occasion, it is befitting to reflect upon contemporary climate adaptation and mitigation policies, from a southern and African point of view. Indeed, climate change is one of the stickiest policy problems of the 21st century, because it is inherently a global and multidimensional problem entailing a bundle of policy features. Following the consecutives shocks to the global economy caused by fossil fuels, the timing has never been better to melt the polarization around climate change politics and propose innovative solutions to surf the uncertainty and complexity of this intractable policy problem.

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Bridging green infrastructure and finance

The world faces a huge shortage of infrastructure investment relative to its needs. With few exceptions, such as China, this shortage is even greater in non-advanced countries.

The G20 Infrastructure Investors Dialogue estimated the volume of global infrastructure investment needed by 2040 to be $81 trillion, $53 trillion of which is needed in non- advanced countries (OECD 2020). The Dialogue projected a gap – in other words, a shortfall in relation to the investments foreseen today – of around $15 trillion worldwide, $10 trillion of which is in non-advanced economies.

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Revisiting international climate negotiations from an African perspective

2020 is an important year for the international climate agenda despite a general loss of momentum and resurgence of the divide between traditional polluters, emerging polluters, and the most vulnerable countries. While African countries only contribute to 4% of global GHG emissions, their capacity to adapt to climate change’s devastating impact on societies, livelihoods, economies, and ecosystems is limited. This paper provides a synthesis of the existing literature and recent developments related to Africa’s position in international climate negotiations. It also provides policy recommendations for African countries to claim a stronger voice and ensure that their priorities (climate finance, technology transfer and capacity building) are better reflected in the international climate regime.

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Climate Diplomacy and the Global South

One aim of COP27 was to persuade countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and earmark resources for technologies to be transferred from industrialized states to less developed states. Hovering over the COP27 was the reluctance of wealthy states to live up to their 2009 commitment to provide $100 billion to poor countries, financial assistance for adaptation (as opposed to just mitigation projects), and more compensation for what the Paris Agreement termed “loss and damage,” that is recompense for destruction already wrought by climate change. This year’s gathering is the first where “funding arrangements” for “loss and damage” were included on the agenda, to the displeasure of the US and European Union who fear liability.

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Monetary policy, climate change and inequalities: should central banks expand their policy toolkit?

In the current context of persistent inflationary pressures and growing uncertainties about the economic outlook, many central banks have mainly focused on their mandate of price stability through more aggressive monetary policies. In addition, the growing concerns linked to climate change and inequalities have shaped the policy discussions related to expanding the traditional mandates of central banks (price stability and/or maximum sustainable employment) to take into account major ethical issues in the design and implementation of monetary policies such as climate change and inequalities. In this podcast, Otaviano Canuto, senior fellow at the Policy Center for the New South, shares his insights on the role of central banks in the current context and whether they should expand the monetary policy toolkit to include climate change and inequalities.

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AD 2021: Great Threats to Humanity: Sustainable Energies and Climate Change

Climate change is the defining issue of our time. The last decade was the hottest in human history and has seen an increase in natural disasters. These shocks not only damage the environment on which humans depend, but they weaken political, economic, and social systems as well. Tackling climate change requires unparalleled levels of global cooperation. It will compel countries to question their economic models, invent new industries and recognize the moral responsibility that wealthy nations have to the rest of the world, thus placing a value on nature that “goes far beyond money.” One way to combat climate change and reduce the drain on our planet’s resources is to shift to systems that utilize sustainable energy. Renewable energy minimizes carbon pollution and has a much lower impact on our environment. While it will cost money to shift to renewable energy, it will cost much more in the long run if the world fails to do so: Given the current uncertain global context resulting from the health crisis, are countries committed enough in the battle against climate change? How can countries lower the cost of the transition to low-carbon sources of energy? What are the significant policies needed to foster the use of sustainable energy? To pursue its battle against climate change, the EU has introduced a carbon border adjustment mechanism as part of its “Fit for 55” package. What are the possible implications of such mechanisms? Are carbon taxes an adequate tool to incentivize countries to decarbonize? Moderator: Uduak Amimo, Journalist and Consultant, Uduak Amimo Coaching and Consulting, Kenya Speakers: - Nchimunya Hamukoma, Research Manager, Harambee Youth Employment Accelerator (ADEL) - Sunjoy Joshi, Chairman, Observer Research Foundation, India - Mari Luomi, Research Fellow, KAPSARC - Saïd Mouline, CEO, Moroccan Agency for Energy Efficiency AMEE

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Plenary V
NATO, the South Atlantic, and the Global Strategic Balance

The growing tensions in international relations that culminated in the war in Ukraine and the Sino-American rivalry put NATO and the dialectic of the transatlantic alliance back at the forefront of global strategic affairs. The 2022 Strategic Concept falls within this dynamic by confirming the intentions at consolidating the capabilities of NATO for the benefit of the defense and collective security of all the Allies. This adjustment leads us to consider the current period as a transition phase, and to rethink the Alliance's relationship with the enlarged Atlantic in the light of Cooperative Security. The Euro-Atlantic certainly has the strategic and economic means as well as the capabilities to occupy the preponderant place in the enlarged Atlantic space. On the other hand, the Latin American and Afro-Atlantic subgroups, marked by a long history of development and security research, are rising in power, as great emerging powers for some, due to their new global geopolitical postures and their desire for diplomatic and strategic autonomy. Therefore, the wider Atlantic cannot be reduced to a vast and simple space segmented between the Euro-Atlantic and the South Atlantic, but it must also be thought of as a relevant space for cooperative security and economic prosperity. However, there are still many questions as to how this could take shape in a world full of uncertainties.

 

- What is the South Atlantic’s room for manoeuvre?

- What are the intentions of the Atlantic Alliance?

- What are the consequences of the global powers’ play on the region?

- Are there opportunities for cooperation in the Wider Atlantic?

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Expanding NATO’s Partnerships in the Southern Region. Why and How?

In the last few months, the global order has been going through some fundamental changes which are affecting the competition between the great powers and have a direct impact on their relations with regional partners. Emerging challenges such as the climate change, cyberwarfare and artificial intelligence, hybrid warfare and non-state actors are shaping a new world that is profoundly different compared to the post-9/11 era, where the war on terrorism opened the gates to what have been successfully described as ‘forever wars’, which have forced the US and its allies to be engaged in the greater Middle East indefinitely.

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Global trends in the energy sector and their implication on energy security in NATO’s southern neighbourhood

The energy sector has undergone major transitions from the use of wood as a dominant fuel to the adoption of coal and, more recently, oil. In the 21st century gas has grown faster than any other fossil fuel and today renewable energy is growing even faster. The changes, combined with volatile energy prices and occasional shocks, create complex scenarios for the future of the energy sector. This has numerous implications, not only for the socio-economic development of NATO’s southern neighbourhood, and Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries in particular, but also for energy security. Policymakers in the region should keep an eye on the current megatrends in the energy sector, and the short-term implications of one-off shocks like COVID-19, in order to define long-term strategies for a resilient energy sector.

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NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue: What are new possible approaches?

NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue (MD) is a forum for cooperation launched in 1994 for non-NATO members from Mediterranean countries. It currently involves Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Mauritania and Tunisia. The 2004 Istanbul Heads of State NATO Summit gave new impetus to the dialogue by enhancing the level of partnership. Since then, many observers note its difficulty to position itself among other political initiatives that are multiplying in the Mediterranean. For our part, we argue that despite the imperfections of the MD, it is still an evolving process; like any institutional process, this dialogue is a process following phases and steps with achievements, inconsistencies and limitations that require a common reflection and debate on effective responses to correct defects and improve cooperation.

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(En) Plenary III: Can Nato Survive the Shifting Geopolitical Order?

Plenary III: Can Nato Survive the Shifting Geopolitical Order? Moderator Kimberly Dozier, CNN & Daily Beast Contributor Speakers Michelle Ndiaye, Director Africa Peace, and Security Programme, Institute for Peace and Security Studies (IPSS) Ahmedou Ould Abdallah, Former Foreign Minister, Republic of Mauritania J. Peter Pham, United States Special Envoy for the Great Lakes Region of Africa; Vice President for Research and Regional Initiatives; Director, Africa Center, Atlantic Council Bruno Tertrais, Deputy Director, Foundation for Strategic Research Joao Vale de Almeida, Ambassador Head of Delegation of the European Union to the United Nations

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Plenary IV
Street Power, Willpower, and Democracy

Whether a sign of a healthy democratic experience or that of a deep and generalized discontent, in recent years, the world has witnessed a multitude of protest movements. From the “Occupy” movement, the "Indignados", the social riots in some Latin American countries, the so-called “Arab Spring”, to the more recent “Gilets Jaunes” or “Antivax”, the world registered a clear increase in dissents since the financial crisis (2007-08). These social movements have clearly demonstrated the growing frustration from socioeconomic policies. They have also pointed at some dysfunctions in democracies in terms of good governance, political representation, and economic justice. Hence, with street power seemingly coming back at the center of world geopolitics, governments are increasingly brought back to the fundamentals of the balance between power and people. Governments are challenged by mass protests, social media polemics and even boycott campaigns that can sometimes lead to damaging instability.

 

- How can we preserve values of democracy in today’s mutating world?

- What’s at stake in today’s world governance?

- In an era of proven instances of manipulation and interference in news and social media, how can governments ensure freedom of expression while addressing these challenges?

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Social Cohesion, Institutions and Public Policies

In July 2017, the OCP Policy Center published a collective work entitled Social Cohesion, Institutions and Public Policies directed by Professor Abdallah Saaf, Senior Fellow at OCP Policy Center. This publication is the result of reflections and discussions exchanged during a conference organized on Thursday, October 27, 2016, and which subsequently were transposed into written contributions. On this occasion, the authors set out to shed light on the concept of "social cohesion" by examining its history, implications as well as its implementation in various chapters. As Morocco grows economically, social demands are also rising, thus requiring social cohesion, as a guarantor of social peace. This Policy Brief aims to revisit the concept of social cohesion, its origin in sociology, to briefly present the societal evolution of Morocco and finally, to highlight the key ideas developed in the book.

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Africa’s New Social Movements: A Continental Approach

Scholars of social movements and global protest have long neglected social movements in Africa, ostensibly because African societies are too rural, too tradition- or ethnicity-bound, or lacking advanced class formations. Those who have broached the topic tend to focus on South Africa’s labor movement and anti-apartheid struggle. Even less addressed is how social movements in various parts of the continent have affected each other. A continent-wide approach however shows that protests in sub-Saharan Africa preceded the North African uprisings, by almost a decade. These protests had similar objectives and faced comparable obstacles, yet much of the scholarship on the “Arab Spring” has ignored the sub-Saharan connections and precedents. How did these movements build on earlier waves of political agitation? How do these “protest coalitions” combine political and economic motivations?

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African Democracy in Crisis

Africa is acutely affected by the ongoing global democratic recession. In 2020, a military coup took place in Mali. In 2021, four African countries – Chad, Mali, Guinea, and Sudan - experienced military takeovers. Thus far, in 2022, two coups have occurred in Burkina Faso and an attempted one in Guinea Bissau. Yet polling data and activism on the ground shows African youth believe in and are prepared to fight for democracy.

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AD 2021: Rebuilding an Inclusive Post-Covid Social Contract

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed flaws in healthcare systems around the world. Despite the inequalities between the different countries in the strength of these systems and the social safety nets, the common observation is that we must rethink social contracts and the relationship between states and their citizens. This renewal of this relationship is based mainly on the quality of services provided by the State and the reform of health systems so that it can withstand future shocks. Nonetheless, we should also take a look on the nature of interactions between citizens and decision-makers. Globally, populations have opposed the coercive methods used by states to impose confinements and mandatory vaccinations, in this context, the issue of trust between states and citizens is at the heart of the overhaul of Post Covid Social Contracts. How can we build an inclusive social contract after what the pandemic has revealed the flaws inside our systems? How does international cooperation impact the national debates on social contracts? Do states have to create global surveillance systems in order to ensure citizen’s well-being? Moderator: James Mcgann, Director, Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program Speakers: - Tosin Duratoye, Principal, Conselia Advisory Practice (ADEL) - Bushra Ebadi, Network Coordinator, Data-driven Surveillance Technologies & Migration Amnesty International (ADEL) - Serigne Gueye Diop, Minister Advisor to the President ; Mayor of Sandiara, Senegal - Ignacio Walker, Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Chile

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AD Talks 2020: States and the Future of Democracy

As Asia rises, the world liberal order is slowly cracking. Democracy – a universal goal for humankind – has also been failing in delivering better welfare to the populations. Western values have influenced the world for the last three hundred years. However, steadily, the West is becoming less relevant, and its values seem to be criticised and inappropriate to catapult the West into a more prominent role. What to expect? Can the West recover lost ground? Will Western values be resilient? Moderator : Mohammed Loulichki, Senior Fellow, Policy Center for the New South Speakers : - Bineta Diop, Special Envoy on Women, Peace and Security, African Union Commission - Trisha Shetty, Founder & CEO, SheSays - Ignacio Walker, Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Chile - Thomas Richter, Director, Berlin & Brussels, Avisa Partners (Emerging Leader).

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( EN ) Plenary V: Democracy in Crisis?

Moderator Borzou Daragahi, International Correspondent, The Independent Speakers Laura Albornoz, Former Minister of State for the National Service for Women, Chile Mohamed Benaïssa, Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Kingdom of Morocco Michelle Ndiaye, Director of the Africa Peace and Security Program, Institute for Peace and Security Studies – IPSS Trisha Shetty, Founder & CEO, SheSays.

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